Dr. Laurel J. Trainor, Professor

Director, Auditory Development Lab

 

Related Links

Publications

 Trainor, L. J. (in press). The origins of music in auditory scene analysis and the roles of evolution and culture in musical creation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal British Society B: Biology.

Folland, N., Butler, B. E., Payne, J. E., & Trainor, L. J. (in press). Cortical representations using harmonic cues to determine the number of auditory objects in the environment emerges between 2 and 4 months of age: Electrophysiological evidence. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience..

Butler, B. E. & Trainor, L. J. (in press).  The musician redefined: A behavioural assessment of rhythm perception in professional Club DJs. Timing & Time Perception.

Gingras, B., Honing, H., Peretz, I., Trainor, L. J., & Fisher, S. (in press). Defining the biological bases of individual differences in musicality. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal British Society B: Biology.

Trainor, L. J. & Cirelli, L. K. (in press). Rhythm and interpersonal synchrony in early social development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

Merchant, H., Grahn, J., Trainor, L. J., Rohmeier, M., & Fitch, W. T. (in press). Finding the beat: A neuro-computational approach. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal British Society B: Biology.

Cirelli, L. K., Wan, S. & Trainor, L. J. (2014). Fourteen-month-old infants use interpersonal synchrony as a cue to direct helpfulness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal British Society B: Biology, 369, 2013044. Full text pdf

Slugocki, C., & Trainor, L. J. (2014). Cortical indices of sound localization mature monotonically in early infancy. European Journal of Neuroscience, 40, 3608-3619. Full text pdf

Hove, M. J., Marie, C., Bruce, I. C. & Trainor, L. J. (2014). Superior time perception for lower musical pitch explains why bass-ranged instruments lay down musical rhythms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/PNAS.1402039111. Full text pdf

Cirelli, L. K., Einarson, K. M. & Trainor, L. J. (2014). Interpersonal synchrony increases prosocial behavior in infants. Developmental Science, 1-9. Full text pdf

Cirelli, L. K., Bosnyak, D., Manning, F. C., Spinelli, C., Marie, C., Fujioka, T., Ghahremani, A & Trainor, L. J. (2014).Beat-induced fluctuations in auditory cortical beta-band activity: using EEG to measure age-related changes. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-9. Full text pdf

Marie, C. & Trainor, L. J. (2014). Early development of polyphonic sound encoding and the high voice superiority effect. Neuropsychologica, 57, 50-58. Full text pdf

Corrigall, K. A. & Trainor, L. J. (2014). Enculturation to musical pitch structure in young children: Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological methods. Developmental Science, 17(1), 142-158. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Marie, C., Bruce, I. C., & Bidelman, G. M. (2014). Explaining the high-voice superiority effect in polyphonic music: Evidence from cortical evoked potentials and peripheral auditory models. Hearing Research, 308, 60-70. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2013). Development of pitch perception and the processing of simultaneous sounds in infancy. Canadian Hearing Report, 8(4), 35-36. Full text pdf

Butler, B. E. & Trainor, L. J. (2013). Brief pitch-priming facilitates infants' discrimination of pitch-evoking noise: Evidence from event-related potentials. Brain and Cognition, 83, 271-278. Full text pdf

Friendly, R. H., Rendall, D. & Trainor, L. J. (2013). Plasticity after perceptual narrowing for voice perception: Reinstating the ability to discriminate monkeys by their voices at 12 months of age. Frontiers in Auditory Cognitive Neuroscience, 4 (718), 1-18. Full text pdf

Friendly, R. H., Rendall, D. & Trainor, L. J. (2013). Learning to differentiate individuals by their voices: Infants' individuation of native- and foreign-species voices. Developmental Psychobiology. Early View doi: 10.1002/dev.21164 Full text pdf

Butler, B. E., Nicole A. Folland, & Trainor, L. J. (2013). Development of pitch processing: Infants' discrimination of iterated rippled noise stimuli with unresolved spectral content. Hearing Research, 304, 1-6. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & He, C. (2013). Auditory and musical development. In P. D. Zelazo (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of developmental psychology: Body and mind (Volume 1) (pp.310-337). Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

Trainor, L. J., & Hannon, E. E. (2013). Musical Development. In D. Deutsch (Ed.), The Psychology of Music (3rd ed.) (pp. 423-498). London, UK: Elsevier Inc. Full text pdf

Marie, C., Fujioka, T., Herrington, L., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). The high-voice superiority effect in polyphonic music is influenced by experience: A comparison of musicians who play Soprano-range compared to Bass-range instruments. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind & Brain, 22(2), 97-104. Full text pdf

DePape, A. R., Hall, G. B. C., Tillman, B., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). Auditory processing in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. PLOS ONE, 7, 1-17. Full text pdf

Butler, B. E., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). Sequencing the cortical processing of pitch-evoking stimuli using EEG analysis and source estimation. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 1-13. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Marie, C., Gerry, D., Whiskin, E., & Unrau, A. (2012). Becoming musically enculturated: Effects of music classes for infants on brain and behavior. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1252, 129-138. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2012). Musical experience, plasticity, and maturation: Issues in measuring developmental change using EEG and MEG. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1252, 25-36. Full text pdf

Gerry, D., Unrau, A., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). Active music classes in infancy enhance musical, communicative and social development. Developmental Science, 15, 398-407. Full text pdf

Marie, C., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). Development of simultaneous pitch encoding: Infants show a high voice superiority effect. Cerebral Cortex, Early View doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs050. Full text pdf

DePape, A. R., Chen, A. Hall, G. B. C., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). Use of prosody and information structure in high functioning adults with Autism in relation to language ability. Frontiers in Language Sciences, 3, 72. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00072. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2012). Predictive information processing is a fundamental learning mechanism present in early development: Evidence from infants. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 83, 256-258. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Trainor, L. J., Large, E. W., & Ross, B. (2012). Internalized timing of isochronous sounds is represented in neuromagnetic beta oscillations. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 1791-1802. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Unrau, A. J. (2012). Development of pitch and music perception. In L. Werner, R. R. Fay & A. N. Popper (Eds.), Springer Handbook of Auditory Research: Human Auditory Development (pp. 223-254). New York: Springer. Full text pdf

Folland, N. A., Butler, B. E., Smith, N. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). Processing simultaneous auditory objects: Infants' ability to detect mistunings in harmonic complexes. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 131, 993-997. Full text pdf

Beheshti, S., Ravan, M., Reilly, J. P., & Trainor, L. J. (2011). Mean-square error in periodogram approaches with adaptive windowing. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 59(3), 923-935. Full text pdf

Corrigall, K. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2011). Associations between length of music training and reading skills in children. Music Perception, 29, 147-155. Full text pdf

Lappe, C., Trainor, L. J., Herholz, S. C., & Pantev, C. (2011). Cortical plasticity induced by short-term multimodal musical rhythm training. PLoS ONE, 6, e21493. Full text pdf

Ravan, M., Reilly, J. P., Trainor, L. J., & Khodayari-Rostamabad, A. (2011). A machine learning approach for distinguishing age of infants using auditory evoked potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122, 2139-2150. Full text pdf

Trainor, L.J., Lee, K., & Bosnyak, D.J. (2011). Cortical plasticity in 4-month-old infants: Specific effects of experience with musical timbres. Brain Topography, 24, 192-203. Full text pdf

Smith, N. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2011). Auditory stream segregation improves infants' selective attention to target tones amid distrators. Infancy, 16, 655-668. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Mourad, N., He, C., & Trainor, L. J. (2011). Comparison of artifact correction methods for infant EEG applied to extraction of event-related potential signals. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122, 43-51. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Mourad, N., & Trainor, L. J. (2011). Development of auditory-specific brain rhythms in infants. European Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 521-529. Full text pdf

Corrigall, K. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2010). Musical enculturation in preschool children: Acquisition of key and harmonic knowledge. Music Perception, 28, 195-200. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Corrigall, K. A. (2010). Music acquisition and effects of musical experience. In M. Riess-Jones & R. R. Fay (Eds.), Springer Handbook of Auditory Research: Music Perception (pp. 89-128). Heidelberg: Springer. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2010). Using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure maturation of auditory cortex in infants: Processing pitch, duration and sound location. In R. E. Tremblay, R. G. Barr, R.deV. Peters, M. Boivin, Eds., Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development (pp. 1-5). Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development. Full text (English) pdf or Full text (French) pdf

Shahin, A. J., Trainor, L. J., Roberts, L. E., Backer, K. C., & Miller, L. M. (2010). Development of auditory phase-locked activity for music sounds. Journal of Neurophysiology, 103, 218-229. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2010). The emotional origins of music. Physics of Life Reviews, 7, 44-45. Full text pdf

Gerry, D. W., Faux, A. L, & Trainor, L. J. (2010). Effects of Kindermusik training on infants' rhythmic enculturation. Developmental Science, 13, 545-551. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Zatorre, R. (2009). The neurobiological basis of musical expectations: From probabilities to emotional meaning. In S. Hallen, I. Cross, & M. Thaut (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology (pp. 171-182). Oxford University Press. Full text pdf

Plantinga, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2009). Melody recognition by two-month-old infants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125, EL58-62. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Shahin, A., & Roberts, L. E. (2009). Understanding the benefits of musical training: Effects on oscillatory brain activity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 133-142. Full text pdf

Corrigall, K., & Trainor, L. J. (2009). Effects of musical training on key and harmony perception. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 164-168. Full text pdf

Tew, S., Fujioka, T., He, C., & Trainor, L. (2009). Neural representation of transposed melody in infants at 6 months of age. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 287-290. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Trainor, L. J., Large, E. W., & Ross, B. (2009). Beta and gamma rhythms in human auditory cortex during musical beat processing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 89-92. Full text pdf

He, C., & Trainor, L. J. (2009). Finding the pitch of the missing fundamental in infants. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 7718-7722. Full text pdf

He, C., Hotson, L., & Trainor, L. J. (2009). Development of infant mismatch responses to auditory pattern changes between 2 and 4 months old. The European Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 861-867. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Unrau, A. J. (2009). Extracting the beat: An experience-dependent complex integration of multisensory information involving multiple levels of the nervous system. Empirical Musicology Review, 4, 32-36. Full text pdf

He, C., Hotson, L., & Trainor, L. J. (2009). Maturation of cortical mismatch mismatch responses to occasional pitch change in early infancy: Effects of presentation rate and magnitude of change. Neuropsychologia, 47, 218-229. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Gao, X., Lei, J., Lehtovarara, K., & Harris, L. R. (2009). The primal role of the vestibular system in determining musical rhythm. Cortex, 45, 35-43. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2008). Event related potential measures in auditory developmental research. In L. Schmidt & S. Segalowitz (Eds.), Developmental Psychophysiology: Theory, systems and methods (pp. 69-102). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, N. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2008). Infant-directed speech is modulated by infant feedback. Infancy, 13, 410-420. Full text pdf

Smith, N. A., Trainor, L. J., Gray, K. Plantinga, J., & Shore, D. (2008). Stimulus, task and learning effects on measures of temporal resolution: Implications for predictors of language outcome. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51, 1630-1642. Full text pdf

Lappe, C., Herholz, S. C., Trainor, L. J., Pantev, C. (2008). Cortical Plasticity Induced by Short-Term Unimodal and Multimodal Musical Training. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 9632-9639. Full text pdf

Plantinga, J. & Trainor, L. J. (2008). Infants' memory for isolated tones and the effects of interference. Music Perception, 26, 121-128. Full text pdf

Phillips-Silver, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2008). Vestibular influence on auditory metrical interpretation. Brain and Cognition, 67, 94-102. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2008). The neural roots of music. Nature, 453, 598-599. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Trainor, L., & Ross, B. (2008). Simultaneous pitches are encoded separately in auditory cortex: An MMNm study. NeuroReport, 19, 361-366. Full text pdf

Shahin, A. J., Roberts, L. R., Chau, W., Trainor, L. J., & Miller, L. (2008). Musical training leads to the development of timbre-specific gamma band activity. NeuroImage, 41, 113-122. Full text pdf

Santesso, D. L., Schmidt, L. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2007). Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) and heart rate in response to affective infant-directed (ID) speech in 9-month-old infants. Brain & Cognition, 65, 14-21. Full text pdf

Hannon, E. E., & Trainor, L. J. (2007). Music acquisition: effects of enculturation and formal training on development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 466- 472. Full text pdf

Phillips-Silver, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2007). Hearing what the body feels: Auditory encoding of rhythmic movement. Cognition, 105, 533-546. Full text pdf

He, C., Hotson, L., & Trainor. L. J. (2007). Mismatch responses to pitch changes in early infancy. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 878-892. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2007). Do preferred beat rate and entrainment to the beat have a common origin in movement? Empirical Musicology Review, 2(1), 17-20. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2006). Innateness, learning, and the difficulty of determining whether music is an evolutionary adaptation: A commentary on Justus & Hutsler (2005) and McDermott & Hauser (2005). Music Perception, 24, 105-110. Full text pdf

Smith, N. A., Trainor, L. J., & Shore, D. I. (2006). The development of temporal resolution: Between-channel gap detection in infants and adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 1104-1123. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Ross, B., Kakigi, R., Pantev, C., & Trainor, L. (2006). One year of musical training affects development of auditory cortical-evoked fields in young children. Brain, 129, 2593-2608. Full text pdf

Sonnadara, R. R., Alain, C., & Trainor, L. J. (2006). Effects of spatial separation and stimulus probability on event-related potentials elicited by occasional changes in sound location. Brain Research, 1071, 175-185. Full text pdf

Sonnadara, R. R., Alain, C., & Trainor, L. J. (2006). Occasional changes in sound location enhance middle latency evoked responses. Brain Research, 1076, 187-192 Full text pdf

Roberts, L.E., Bosnyak, D.J., Shahin, A. & Trainor L.J. (2005). Neuroplastic adaptations of the auditory system in musicians and non-musicians. In J. Syka and M. Merzenich (Eds.), Plasticity and signal representation in the auditory system. Heidelberg :Springer. Full text pdf

Shahin, A., Roberts, L. E., Pantev, C., Trainor, L. J., & Ross, B. (2005). Modulation of P2 auditory evoked responses by the spectral complexity of musical sounds, NeuroReport, 16, 1781-85. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Trainor, L. J., Ross, B., Kakigi, R., & Pantev, C. (2005). Automatic encoding of polyphonic melodies in musicians and non-musicians. J. of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 1578-1592. Full text pdf

Sonnadara, R. R., & Trainor, L. J. (2005). Perceived intensity effects in the octave illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 67, 648 - 658. Full text pdf

Plantinga, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2005). Memory for melody: Infants use a relative pitch code. Cognition, 98, 1-11. Full text pdf

Phillips-Silver, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2005). Feeling the beat in music: Movement influences rhythm perception in infants. Science, 308, 1430. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2005). Are there critical periods for music development? Developmental Psychobiology, 46, 262-278. Full text pdf

Shahin, A., Roberts, L. E., & Trainor, L. J. (2004). Enhancement of auditory cortical development by musical experience in children, NeuroReport, 15, 1917-1921. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Trainor, L. J., Ross, B., Kakigi, R., & Pantev, C. (2004). Musical training enchances automatic encoding of melodic contour and interval structure, J. Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1010-1021. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Wu, L., & Tsang, C. D. (2004). Long-term memory for music: Infants remember tempo and timbre. Developmental Science, 7, 289-296. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Sonnadara, R., Wiklund, K., Bondy, J., Gupta, S., Becker, S., Bruce, I. , & Haykin, S. (2004). Development of a flexible, realistic, hearing in noise test environment (R-HINT-E). Signal Processing, 84, 299-309. Full text pdf

Bondy, J., Becker, S., Bruce, I. , Trainor, L. & Haykin. S. (2004). A novel signal processing strategy for hearing aid design: NeuroCompensation. Signal Processing, 84, 1239-1253. Full text pdf

Trainor, L.J., Shahin, A., & Roberts, L. E. (2003). Effects of musical training on auditory cortex in children. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 506-513. Full text pdf

Plantinga, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2003). Long-term memory for pitch in six-month-old infants. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 520-521.

Pantev, C., Ross, B., Fujioka, T., Trainor, L., Schulte, M., Schulz, M. (2003). Music and learning-induced cortical plasticity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 438-450.

Trainor, L. J., & Schmidt, L. A. (2003). Processing Emotions Induced by Music. In I. Peretz and R. Zatorre, (Eds.), The Cognitive Neuroscience of Music. Oxford : Oxford U. Press, pp. 310-324. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Shahin, A., & Roberts, L. E. (2003). Effects of musical training on the auditory cortex in children. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 506-513. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., McFadden, M., Hodgson, L., Darragh, L., Barlow, J., Matsos, L., Sonnadara, R. (2003). Changes in auditory cortex and the development of mismatch negativity between 2 and 6 months of age. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 51, 5-15. Full text pdf

Shahin, A., Bosnyak, D., Trainor, L. J., & Roberts, L. E. (2003). Enhancement of neuroplastic P2 and N1c auditory evoked potentials in musicians. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 5545-5552. Full text pdf

Schmidt, L. A., Trainor, L. J., & Santesso, D. L. (2003). Development of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life. Brain and Cognition, 52, 27-32. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., McDonald, K. L., & Alain, C. (2002). Automatic and controlled processing of melodic contour and interval information measured by electrical brain activity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 430-442. Full text pdf

Tsang, C. D., & Trainor, L. J. (2002). Spectral slope discrimination in infancy: Sensitivity to socially important timbres. Infant Behavior and Development, 25, 183-194 Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Tsang, C. D., & Cheung, V. H. W. (2002). Preference for consonance in 2- and 4-month-old infants. Music Perception, 20, 187-194. Full text pdf

Anvari, S., Trainor, L. J., Woodside, J., & Levy, B. A. (2002). Relations among musical skills, phonological processing, and early reading ability in preschool children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83, 111-130. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Desjardins, R. N. (2002). Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants' ability to discriminate vowels. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9, 335-340. Full text pdf

Tsang, C. D., Trainor, L. J., Santesso, D. L., Tasker, S. L., & Schmidt, L. A. (2001). Frontal EEG responses as a function of affective musical features. In The Biological Foundations of Music (R. Zatorre & I. Peretz, Eds.), Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 930, 439-442.

Trainor, L. J., McDonald, K., & Alain, C. (2001). Electrical brain activity associated with automatic and controlled processing of melodic contour and interval. In The Biological Foundations of Music (R. Zatorre & I. Peretz, Eds.), Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 930, 429-432.

Trainor, L. J., Samuel, S. S., Galay, L., Hevenor, S. J., Desjardins, R. N., & Sonnadara, R. (2001). Measuring temporal resolution in infants using mismatch negativity. NeuroReport, 12, 2443-2448. Full text pdf

Schmidt, L. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2001). Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) distinguishes valence and intensity of musical emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 487-500. Full text pdf

O’Neill, C., Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (2001). Infants' responsiveness to fathers' singing. Music Perception, 18, 409-425.

Trainor, L. J., Austin, C. M., & Desjardins, R. N. (2000). Is infant-directed speech prosody a result of the vocal expression of emotion? Psychological Science, 11, 188-195. Full Text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Adams, B. (2000). Infants' and adults' use of duration and intensity cues in the segmentation of auditory patterns. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, 333-340. Full text pdf

Desjardins, R. N., Trainor, L. J., Hevenor, S. J., & Polak, C. P. (1999). Using mismatch negativity to measure auditory temporal resolution thresholds. NeuroReport, 10, 2079-2082. Full text pdf

Rock, A. M. L., Trainor, L. J., & Addison, T. (1999). Distinctive messages in infant-directed lullabies and play songs. Developmental Psychology, 35, 527-534. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Desjardins, R. N., & Rockel, C. (1999). A comparison of contour and interval processing in musicians and non-musicians using event-related potentials. Australian Journal of Psychology: Special Issue on Music as a Brain and Behavioural System, 51, 147-153 . Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Zacharias, C. A. (1998). Infants prefer higher-pitched singing. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 799-805. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Heinmiller, B. M. (1998). The development of evaluative responses to music: Infants prefer to listen to consonance over dissonance. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 77-88. Full text pdf

Trehub, S. E., & Trainor, L. J. (1998). Singing to infants: Lullabies and playsongs. Advances in Infancy Research, 12, 43-77. Full txt pdf

Pang, E. W., Edmonds, G. E., Desjardins, R., Khan, S. C., Trainor, L. J., & Taylor, M. J. (1998). Mismatch negativity to speech stimuli in 8-month-old infants and adults. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 29, 227-236. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (1997). The effect of frequency ratio on infants' and adults' discrimination of simultaneous intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 1427-38. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Clark, E. D., Huntley, A., & Adams, B. (1997). The acoustic basis of preferences for infant-directed singing. Infant Behavior and Development, 20, 383-396. Full text pdf

Trehub, S. E., Unyk, A. M., Kamenetsky, S. B., Hill, D. S., Trainor, L. J., Henderson, J. L., & Saraza, M. (1997). Mothers' and fathers' singing to infants. Developmental Psychology, 33, 500-507. Full text pdf

Schellenberg, E. G., & Trainor, L. J. (1996). Sensory consonance and the perceptual similarity of complex-tone harmonic intervals: Tests of adult and infant listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 100, 3321-3328. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (1996). Effects of harmonics on relative pitch discrimination in a musical context. Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 704-712. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (1996). Infant preferences for infant-directed versus noninfant-directed playsongs and lullabies. Infant Behavior and Development, 19, 83-92 Full text pdf

Trehub, S. E., Schneider, B. A., Trainor, L. J., & Morrongiello, B. A. (1996). Threshold estimation in the preschool period: The PEST Procedure. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, 20, 173-179. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (1994). Key membership and implied harmony in Western tonal music: Developmental perspectives. Perception & Psychophysics, 56, 125-132. Full text pdf

Trehub, S. E. & Trainor, L. J. (1993). Listening strategies in infancy: The roots of language and musical development. In S. McAdams & E. Bigand (Eds.), Cognitive aspects of human audition. London : Oxford U. Press, pp. 278-327.

Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (1993). Musical context effects in infants and adults: Key distance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19, 615-26. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (1993). What mediates adults’ and infants’ superior processing of the major triad? Music Perception, 11, 185-196. Full text pdf

Trehub, S. E., Trainor, L. J., & Unyk, A. (1993). Music and speech processing in the first year of life. Advances in child development and behavior, 24, 1-35.

Trehub, S. E., Unyk, A. M., & Trainor, L. J. (1993). Adults identify infant-directed music across cultures. Infant Behavior and Development, 16, 193-211.

Trehub, S. E., Unyk, A. M., & Trainor, L. J. (1993). Maternal singing in cross-cultural perspective. Infant Behavior and Development, 16, 285-295.

Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (1992). A comparison of infants' and adults' sensitivity to Western musical structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 394-402. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (1992). The development of referential meaning in music. Music Perception, 9, 455-470.

Unyk, A. M., Trehub, S. E., Trainor, L. J., & Schellenberg, E. G. (1992). Lullabies and simplicity: A cross-cultural perspective. Psychology of Music, 20, 15-28. Full text pdf

Trehub, S. E. & Trainor, L. J. (1990). Rules for listening in infancy. In J. Enns (Ed.), The development of attention: Research and theory (87-119). Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers.

Trehub, S. E., Thorpe, L. A., & Trainor, L. J. (1990). Infants' perception of good and bad melodies. Psychomusicology, 9, 5-19.

Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (1989). Aging and auditory temporal sequencing: Ordering the elements of repeating tone patterns. Perception & Psychophysics, 45, 417-426.